Think of spot metering as a skilled detective investigating a crime scene. Just like the detective focuses on crucial evidence and disregards irrelevant details, spot metering zooms in on a specific area of your composition to gather accurate exposure information.
It’s like shining a flashlight on the key piece of evidence, revealing its true colors and intricacies while ignoring the surrounding distractions.
By utilizing spot metering, you become the detective of light, uncovering the precise exposure values needed to capture a well-balanced and captivating photograph.
Well in this guide, I’ll be diving into the concept of spot metering and showing you how to use it like a pro.
Whether you’re a novice photographer or looking to improve your skills, mastering spot metering can make a world of difference in your images.
With that being said, let’s dive in!
Table of Contents
What is Spot Metering?
Spot metering is a camera metering mode that provides precise control over exposure by measuring the light in a specific spot or area of your frame.
Unlike other metering modes that evaluate the overall scene, spot metering hones in on a small portion, allowing you to prioritize the exposure of your subject or a specific element within the composition.
By understanding the concept of spot metering, you can unlock its potential to capture perfectly exposed photographs in a variety of challenging lighting conditions.
Let’s take a closer look at how it works.
How Does Spot Metering Work?
When you activate spot metering mode on your camera, a small area or a specific focus point is selected as the metering point.
This point becomes the reference area from which the camera measures the light intensity.
The camera’s metering sensor or the selected focus point analyzes the brightness values of this spot and calculates the necessary exposure settings.
I’ve found that the size of the spot metering area can vary depending on the camera model and settings. It is usually a small fraction of the total frame, typically around 1-5% of the viewfinder area.
This small spot ensures that only the light falling on that specific area is taken into account when determining the exposure.
In terms of focus, spot metering is commonly linked to the camera’s active autofocus point, which means the metering area coincides with your active focus point, ensuring that the exposure is based on the subject you’re focusing on.
However, some cameras (such as Sony) also allow you to manually move the spot metering point, providing additional flexibility to meter-specific areas even if they don’t coincide with the active autofocus point.
Now that we know how it works, let’s take a look at why it’s used.
Why is Spot Metering Used?
As a portrait photographer, spot metering is usually my go-to metering mode due to its precise control over exposure in different lighting conditions.
Here are all the reasons why I believe spot metering should be used.
1. Accurate Subject Exposure
The first reason spot metering is used is for accurate subject exposure.
Spot metering is the perfect metering mode if you have a single point of focus or subject because spot metering enables you to achieve accurate exposure for your subjects, even when faced with complex lighting conditions.
By metering a specific spot or area on the subject, you can ensure that it is properly exposed, regardless of the brightness or darkness of the surrounding elements.
For example, when I’m photographing a backlit portrait, spot metering on the subject’s face will allow me to capture their features with ideal exposure, avoiding underexposure caused by the bright background.
2. Manage High Contrast Scenes
The second reason spot metering is used is to manage high-contrast scenes.
In scenes with high contrast, such as landscapes with bright skies and deep shadows, spot metering can help balance exposure and preserve details in both highlight and shadow areas.
I’ve found that if you meter the brightest or most important part of the scene, you can ensure that it receives the correct exposure, while other areas may be intentionally underexposed or overexposed for creative effect.
This technique allows you to maintain detail in both the bright and dark areas, creating a visually striking image. And if a certain area is too underexposed, then you can just bring it into post-processing and brighten up that specific area.
3. Controlling Exposure in Mixed Light
The third reason spot metering is used is to control for exposure in mixed light. And by mixed light, I mean both natural and artificial light.
When faced with mixed lighting sources, such as a scene with both natural and artificial light, spot metering allows you to prioritize the exposure for specific areas.
For example, I’ve found this to be particularly helpful when in a room with a window casting bright daylight on one side and artificial indoor lighting on the other.
I like to use spot metering in this situation because it can help you accurately expose the subject under the artificial light, disregarding the brightness of the window.
This will ensure your subject is properly exposed while maintaining the overall mood and balance of the composition.
Now that we know why spot metering is used, let’s dive into some tips you can use when using spot metering.
5 Tips for Using Spot Metering
To make the most out of using spot metering on your photoshoots, here are five tips I’ve found to be useful based on my experience.
1. Identify Your Critical Area
The first tip when using spot metering is to identify your critical area.
Before activating spot metering, identify the crucial area within your composition that requires accurate exposure.
It could be a person’s face, a specific object, or a vital element that you want to highlight.
By pinpointing this area, you can ensure that your exposure readings are focused on the most important part of the scene.
For example, suppose you’re photographing a flower in a garden. By using spot metering on the delicate petals, you can ensure that they retain their intricate details and vibrant colors, regardless of the overall lighting conditions.
2. Understand the Light Contrast
The second tip when using spot metering is to understand the light contrast.
When approaching a scene, you’ll want to evaluate the lighting conditions in your scene, paying attention to the contrast between your subject and the surrounding elements.
Spot metering is particularly useful in high-contrast situations where there is a significant difference in brightness levels.
You can use spot metering to expose the specific area of interest, effectively managing highlights and shadows.
For example, if you’re going to capture a sunset landscape, then spot metering on the sun itself will allow you to retain the richness and brilliance of the sunset colors while avoiding overexposure to the rest of the scene.
3. Utilize Exposure Lock
The third tip when using spot metering is to also utilize exposure lock.
In situations where you need to recompose the frame after metering, consider using the exposure lock feature. Once you’ve metered the desired spot, engage the exposure lock function to lock in the exposure settings.
This way, you can recompose without the camera automatically readjusting the exposure based on the new framing.
So for example, one way I’ve found this to be helpful is if you’re photographing a portrait with the subject slightly off-center.
By spot metering on the subject’s face, locking the exposure, and then recomposing the frame, you can maintain the correct exposure even if the subject moves within the frame.
4. Consider Exposure Compensation
The fourth tip when using spot metering is to consider using exposure compensation when needed.
Spot metering provides a precise exposure reading for the metered area, but it’s not perfect may not always result in the desired overall exposure.
You’ll want to experiment with exposure compensation to fine-tune the exposure according to your creative vision.
Increase or decrease the exposure compensation to adjust the overall brightness while keeping the spot-metered area correctly exposed.
Let’s take the example of a black cat to better illustrate this point.
If you’re photographing a black cat in a dimly lit room, spot metering on its fur may result in an underexposed image.
So what do you do? In order to compensate, you can apply positive exposure compensation to ensure that the entire scene is adequately exposed while retaining the details of the cat’s fur.
5. Practice and Review
The fifth tip is to practice and review.
Just like any photography technique or technical skill, spot metering requires practice and familiarity with your camera’s metering system.
I recommend regularly reviewing your images to assess the effectiveness of your spot metering technique.
The areas you’ll want to pay attention to are the balance of highlights, shadows, and overall exposure.
After a photo shoot, I would go into post-processing, look at the histogram and see how spot metering affected the exposure in my images.
I would analyze the highlights and shadows to identify the areas that needed better adjustment and refinement for future shoots. Do this a few times and you’ll become more familiar with spot metering and how it works!
How to Set Your Camera to Spot Metering
In order to actually set your camera to spot metering mode, it’s fairly easy and straightforward.
First, you’ll want to go into your camera menu. From the menu, you’ll want to look for the metering mode settings which are also sometimes accessible through a button on your camera (check your camera manual). For example, I have the Canon 5D Mark IV and I can change my metering mode from a button on the top of my camera.
Once you’re in the metering mode settings, set your camera to spot metering mode which is usually indicated as the image with the dot in the middle of the frame.
Spot Metering vs Center-Weighted Metering
If you read my metering mode guide, you may have noticed that are other metering modes other than spot metering.
One of those other metering modes is center-weighted metering.
Unlike spot metering which provides very precise control, center-weighted metering, on the other hand, offers a more balanced approach by considering the overall exposure of the scene while prioritizing the central area.
This method is well-suited for general photography when you want to evaluate the scene as a whole and have a more natural, even exposure.
For example, if you’re going to capture a vast landscape scene with a prominent subject in the center, surrounded by other elements, then center-weighted metering will assess the overall exposure of the scene but prioritize the central subject.
You’ll find this technique helps ensure that the main subject is properly exposed, while the surrounding elements contribute to the overall exposure evaluation.
Spot Metering vs Evaluative Metering
Another popular metering mode is evaluative metering.
Unlike spot metering, evaluative metering considers the entire scene and provides a balanced exposure based on various factors.
It is well-suited for general-purpose photography and situations where you want to evaluate the scene as a whole.
Going back to the landscape example, let’s say you’re photographing a landscape with a wide range of tones, including bright skies, shadowy trees, and a flowing river.
Evaluative metering will consider all these elements and provide a balanced exposure for the entire scene.
It will take into account the different tonal values and ensure a well-balanced exposure, resulting in a natural-looking landscape image.
In conclusion, spot metering is just one of several exposure measurement techniques available, and choosing the right method depends on the specific shooting scenario and your creative vision.
The next time you find yourself faced with challenging lighting conditions or the need for precise exposure control, embrace spot metering as your go-to tool. Good luck and happy photographing!
Frequently Asked Questions
Who should use spot metering?
Spot metering is recommended for photographers who require precise exposure control over specific subjects or areas of their composition, especially in situations with high contrast or challenging lighting conditions, such as portrait photographers.
What is reflective vs spot metering?
Reflective metering measures the overall light reflected from the entire scene to determine exposure settings, while spot metering measures the light intensity from a specific spot or area within the frame to prioritize exposure for a particular subject or element.
Does spot metering follow the focus point?
Spot metering can be set to follow the focus point, which means that the metering is based on the exposure reading from the active focus point, allowing for precise exposure control of the subject being focused on.
Is spot metering the same as partial metering?
No, spot metering and partial metering are different metering modes, with spot metering measuring the light from a small specific spot in the frame, while partial metering measures the light from a larger area, typically around 10-15% of the viewfinder.
Nate Torres is a portrait photographer servicing the Orange County and Los Angeles areas. He specializes in portraits of individuals, couples, groups and headshots. Nate Torres is also a photography writer and content creator and educates other photographers on portrait photography, composition, editing, gear, and business. You can find his content on his personal website, social media, and YouTube Channel, as well as on blogs such as Fstoppers, Photofocus, and Imaginated. Being a former SEO consultant, Nate also teaches other photographers how to use SEO to grow their own photography business on his educational blog, Shutter SEO.