This is a guide covering reflectors in photography.
Knowing how to use one can make your life a lot easier and allow you to capture better photos.
Let’s dive in!
What is a Reflector in Photography?
A reflector is a tool used in photography and videography to bounce light around. It simply acts as a medium to bounce light and redirects it back to your subject. These handy reflectors can be brought anywhere and are also available in various shapes and sizes.
A reflector will either be artificial or natural. I count the environment as a valid member of the natural reflector group, buildings, walls, cars, roads, you name it.
As long it reflects light, you can pretty much call it a reflector. But this article, in particular, will mainly focus on artificial ones.
In comparison, artificial reflectors are the equipment that you bring to a photo shoot session. Two of the most common reflectors are lamp reflectors and board/plane reflectors. Each of them serves different purposes and also comes at affordable prices.
Whatever your level of expertise might be in photography, you’ll most likely need a reflector.
Outside or even inside your studio, there will be a high chance that you’ll need softer lights on your subjects/objects.
How to Use a Reflector in Photography?
You can use reflectors to help add fill light onto your subject/object, you can add catchlights (if you use them in portrait photography), and you can even prevent silhouettes from appearing.
So basically, the purpose is to enhance photos by adjusting the light.
To use your reflector, you simply open it and position it based on your needs.
Here are all the steps I recommend you follow in order to effectively use your reflector:
1. Choose the Right Reflector
Reflectors come in different sizes and colors, such as silver, gold, white, and black. Each type of reflector produces a different effect. Choose the reflector that suits your desired outcome.
- Silver reflectors provide strong, contrasty light.
- Gold reflectors add a warm, golden tone to the light.
- White reflectors produce soft and neutral light.
- Black reflectors block light and create shadows (used for negative fill).
2. Position Your Subject
Position your subject or object in the desired location, considering the direction of the existing light source (natural or artificial).
3. Position the Reflector
Determine the direction from which you want to reflect light onto your subject.
Have an assistant or use a stand to hold the reflector, or you can hold it yourself if shooting solo.
Experiment with different angles and positions to achieve the desired effect. Common positions include:
- Front Reflector (Fill Light): Place the reflector in front of your subject, angled upward, to bounce light back onto their face, reducing shadows and providing even lighting.
- Side Reflector (Fill or Rim Light): Position the reflector to the side of your subject to fill in shadows or create rim lighting, depending on the angle.
- Under Reflector (Upward Fill): Place the reflector on the ground or a flat surface below your subject to bounce light upward for a soft and flattering effect.
4. Control the Intensity
Adjust the distance between the reflector and your subject to control the intensity of the reflected light.
Closer reflectors produce stronger, more directional light, while moving the reflector farther away softens the effect.
Tilt the reflector to control the angle and direction of the reflected light.
5. Take Test Shots
Capture test shots and review them on your camera’s LCD screen. Assess the lighting and adjust the reflector’s position and angle as needed to achieve your desired look.
6. Use Exposure Settings
Adjust your camera’s exposure settings (aperture, shutter speed, ISO) to maintain the desired exposure while incorporating the reflected light.
7. Experiment and Be Creative
Don’t be afraid to experiment with different reflector colors, positions, and angles to create various lighting effects.
Reflectors are versatile tools that can be used for portrait photography, product photography, outdoor shoots, and more.
What is the Purpose of a Reflector?
If you’re shooting outside, you will at some point encounter situations that need a bit more lighting. Even if you decide to shoot indoors, you’ll find that a reflector will often be just what you need to get that perfect exposure, shadow, and soft light.
The main purpose of a reflector is to bounce light, as its name implies.
On the other hand, there are other purposes that shift ever so slightly with the change of reflector used.
For example, while your regular white/silver reflectors are made to bounce light around, making the light softer — the black reflectors (yes they exist) are made to do the exact opposite of it, this reflector absorbs light rather than reflects it.
Why Use a Reflector?
Well, there will always be some cases when you need a bit more directional or soft light. Most of these cases happen when you’re shooting outside of the studio and rely on the Sun as your main source of light.
Since you can’t control the sun’s brightness and direction, you will need to reflect it around to counteract the harsh light.
From my experience with experimenting with the direction of lights, it seemed that the face’s appearance “changes.” We, humans, are used to having lights above us. It’s been like that for a really long time and we get accustomed to it.
We now associate lighting that comes from above as normal. This is the main reason why lights that “fill the room” are on the ceiling, not on the floor.
The light coming from above is usually the main source of light, resulting in shadows under the nose and jaw (well roughly). If the shadows are contrasting too much, the reflector can help to act as a fill light.
As its name implies, a fill-light will fill in the shadows. This will make the shadows appear less dark, giving your subject a more flattering look.
Long story short, you should use a reflector for better lighting on your subject/object.
How Does a Reflector Work?
Light comes in from the corresponding light source, and the reflectors reflect them onto another surface or subject, scattering the light in various directions (excluding the black-colored reflector), and producing a softer light.
Different colors do different things, a gold-colored reflector will make a golden hour-ish type of light. On the flip side, a black-colored reflector will absorb light.
Based on the position of your reflector and your light source, the results may differ. You will usually see photographers have their assistants, models, or themselves hold the reflector under the subject’s eye level.
Sadly, many beginner photographers copy this technique without fully knowing what it does.
Well, placing it under eye level will simply produce fill light, and don’t forget the unnatural-looking catch light.
The most ideal position of your reflector should be at eye level or a bit higher.
It imitates our sun, produces a more natural-looking catchlight, and it also fills in the shadows around the nose and eye.
Please note that you should use your reflector after assessing the situation and image theme.
I mean, what’s the point of having a soft light for edgy photos that usually rely on harsh contrasts?
Anyways, it’s still your image. Have fun and experiment with the reflector all you like, the more knowledge and experience you have with it, the better.
It will also be super useful if you had an assistant or dedicated equipment to hold the reflectors in place. Before hiring an assistant and purchasing equipment, try using whatever’s in your arsenal first or use your surroundings to compensate for your lack of equipment.
Common Types of Reflectors
Purchasing reflectors may seem daunting at first, but with the various shapes and sizes, even I faced the dilemma in my early days. Your main concern should be about the size and colors.
For the most part, the middle 40” reflector should be easy and versatile enough to use. To make it easier to use, most reflectors can be “collapsed” into a small circle.
Increase highlights and create images with high-contrast images. Use this for situations where you need more light and avoid using it in bright conditions. The light will be too harsh on your image and won’t look too flattering.
Make a golden hour-ish (yellow-er) image, giving it a more glamorous look. Photographers rarely use this reflector since it can easily make their subject/object too warm or too bronze. It’s hard to control and Photoshop does the job better and faster.
Simply add fill light. This is your default option that purely adds a neutral, natural, and soft illumination to your subject/object.
Different from the other reflectors, the black color blocks/flags decrease light. Photographers will often use this to create a more dramatic image because of the high contrast produced.
This is more of a diffuser than a reflector, but it’s common in the 5-in-1 reflector. This type produces a soft light effect, perfect for flattering portraits. Use this to convert the direct harsh light into the softer version.
As you can see, there are various colors and not all of them are always used. The 5-in-1 reflector is like a Swiss knife of sorts, you’ll frequently use two parts but rarely use the others. The other parts will come in handy for those specific situations.
Most of the time, reflectors are not expensive and come in a 4-in-1, 5-in-1, or 8-in-1 format.
The various options give you more access to interesting themes and adjustments. There are expensive options that are also available, that are more convenient but not always better.
Some of the more expensive reflectors are Styrofoam sheets, foam core, and coroplast do a great job of reflecting light.
Unfortunately, it’s a huge pain to bring them around. Using them inside your studio requires an assistant or light stand, to keep them in place. If you’re outside your assistant can hold them up just fine and just fight against the wind a bit.
To further explore the subject of choosing a reflector for your photography needs, check out this in-depth video by Westcott Lighting:
What to Look for in a Good Reflector?
A good reflector should work just like a mirror, the surface should be smooth and reflects everything equally. They should also be shiny like aluminum foil.
The reflector needs to bounce back light waves at the same angle as it hits the reflector. Rough and opaque surfaces will most likely have bad abilities at reflecting light since it scatters the light everywhere.
A good reflector should also be affordable, easy to use, and allows you to easily modify incoming light in a flattering way.
The material of a reflector should be lightweight while also being flexible, making it easy to collapse and carry around.
Size should be adjusted to your photography niche.
Macro photographers will commonly use a 14”- 20”, and photographers specializing in headshots will often buy a 20”- 30”.
Portrait photographers use the middle 30”- 40”, while the full-body and group shot photographers will take the largest one available which is 52” or that one reflector larger than themselves.
When in doubt, go for the middle-sized reflector which is around 30”- 40”.
For shapes, the classic reflectors are more favorable than the round ones.
This is my personal favorite shape because it’s easier to grip and larger, but it’s not uncommon either to see a professional photographer carrying their round collapsible reflector.
The last phase is to determine the type of reflector. For the all-around Swiss army knife reflector, go for the 5 in 1 or 6 in 1.
If you already know what you’re doing and want to spend more cash on an expensive reflector, then go for it!
About the size, shape, and price, it’s all about personal preference. If you’re confused about which size to use, take the 30” to 40”.
Regarding shape, most photographers use round reflectors. But I prefer the square reflector because it’s larger and easier to grip.
As for price, there are plenty of DIY reflectors that you can make on your own. You can use your bed sheet as a diffuser, use aluminum foil to mimic a silver reflector, and many more.
There is also an affordable 5-in-1 reflector that starts from 20$ with good quality and versatility. Lastly, there are expensive yet convenient reflectors.
Also, be sure to check out what scrims are as well which are also great for diffusing light.
Don’t forget to experiment and practice using the reflectors too, because your success depends on it. Good luck and have fun!
Do you need a reflector for photography?
Using a reflector can be helpful in photography, especially when working with natural light or in situations where additional light is needed to illuminate the subject. Reflectors can help to bounce light back onto the subject and fill in shadow areas, resulting in a more balanced and evenly lit photograph.
What can you use if you don’t have a reflector?
If you don’t have a reflector, you can use alternative objects that are readily available to help bounce light back onto your subjects such as a white foam board, a silver or white umbrella, a white wall or ceiling, or a sheet of aluminum foil.
Nate Torres is an entrepreneur, growth marketer, and photographer and writes mostly on those topics. Nate runs his own professional photography business and photography blog called Nate Torres Photography. Nate enjoys learning about new digital marketing strategy and new ways to think creatively. He is also a photography speaker and author on Photofocus.