This is a guide covering high-key lighting in photography.
Knowing how high-key lighting influences a 3-point lighting setup and how to use it can step up your photography game.
With that being said, let’s dive into it!
What is High Key Lighting?
“Key” refers to the main light in the high key lighting setup. At the same time, the term “high” refers to the main light’s intensity/power compared to other lights in the setup. The phrase altogether refers to a high key lighting setup, where the key lights are much stronger than the fill lights.
Why is High Key Lighting Used?
The style itself is something people enter after mastering the basics and getting used to the camera. It is pretty unconventional and seems to be breaking some fundamental rules.
But in reality, high-key lighting has been present in photography for quite a long time.
The image itself is in its entirety a very bright portrait, presenting little to no shadows.
This method of photography is not some unorthodox over-exposing by the photographer, it is more of a creative decision to evoke certain moods.
Images that use high-key lighting have a more upbeat and lighthearted feel to them.
Your favorite sitcom and comedy show will most likely be using high-key lighting and your wedding and those baby photographs.
The technique is best at making shots more energetic and active. It is pretty effective at highlighting positive aspects of your subjects or objects.
It highlights positive, clean, and even romantic feelings.
The method also uses a quite interesting bias that people have towards the color white, especially those on buildings and clothes.
White is commonly associated with cleanliness, high quality, and also upscale.
Cafes and restaurants often make the most use of these associations. The most infamous one is the Hamburger restaurant chain, White Castle.
High-key lighting creates a clean focus on the center of attention, whether it is the married couple or a clean dining area.
Why is it Called High Key Lighting?
The “key” characteristics of this style are its homogeneity and the picture being free from shadows.
The concept of key lighting itself originated from the film industry. Camera people often use this term to refer to the main light in a particular scene.
Combinations of these three elements are now referred to as the three-point lighting technique:
When is High Key Lighting Used?
The main reason photographers attempt this kind of lighting style is to reduce the lighting ratio in your scene.
The technique makes it ideal for showcasing since it isolates the subject and any visible distractions around it.
Yet, the high key lighting setup is traditionally used for technological issues. Because back in the old days, high contrast ratios were quite tricky and hard to deal with.
The lighting style is also used in many Hollywood cinemas. The main reason is its effectiveness for the three-point lighting method.
The style does not need many adjustments for various scenes, allowing the production team to finish their shoots much faster.
Despite its use in Hollywood movies, there are some situations where high-key lighting cannot be fully utilized. For example, scenes that need some drama and meaning will rarely use high lighting.
One of the most iconic high-key examples that illustrate the style beautifully is that one scene in Bruce Almighty. A classic age-old film where Jim Carey becomes somewhat of a God.
The scene starts with Jim entering the building with little to no shadow, the light coming from above and making the area look “Holy” in a sense. This lighting indicates to the viewers that Morgan Freeman is truly God.
In addition, since photography is easier to access nowadays, people use it to convey more upbeat feelings. Either it is for commercial purposes for food, beauty products, etc.
The look also implies a sense of truthfulness and openness. The high-key lighting examples for this are video interviews, training videos, or even an advertisement for the company.
Avoid using the high-key lighting setup when shooting dark-colored objects, it may look insincere to the viewers.
The usage of this style should work in tandem with the content, with the goal of making it cohesive and clear to the audience.
High Key Lighting vs Low Key Lighting?
There is a high key lighting and low-key lighting. So, what does the low-key lighting do?
Is it just the same but less light?
Well, if you thought that it is just the same but darker then you are correct! It is not entirely wrong that low-key lighting is the darker and edgier brother of the two.
Being the opposite of high-key photos is not easy.
The technique itself requires much darker tones, shadows, and really deep blacks. All of this is done to create a photo with very minimal amounts of mid-tones and whites.
Photos taken using this technique will often look mysterious and dramatic. People use this in many ways to highlight a certain aspect of their subject or object.
Maybe display a negative side of a character. The magnitude of this effect depends on the cohesion of your scene, subject, and also theme.
Here are the main characteristic differences between High key lighting and Low-key lighting:
High Key Lighting
- Dominated by a range of white, caused by bright lights.
- Has a minimal number of blacks and mid-tones.
- Each image has an upbeat, playful, optimistic, and clean feel to it.
- Extremely common in wedding, commercial, newborn, and portrait photography
When to Use High Key Lighting
- Portrait Photography: This includes taking photos for business professionals, fashion shoots, or close-up shots. The usage in weddings is particularly popular for the photos of the bride.
- Nature Shots
- Cinematic Shots
- Advertising and commercial photography (booklets, posters, brochures, etc.)
Low Key Lighting
- This style incorporates a mostly dark-colored image. Images consist of darker tones, shadows, and deep blacks.
- A miniscule number of whites and mid-tones.
- Plays around with striking contrasts.
- Images in this style feel more dramatic, serious, and mysterious.
When to Use Low Key Lighting
- Dramatic close-ups: Journalism and Documentary photography will commonly use low-key lighting to emphasize the emotion of their subjects. Such as someone looking depressed or sad.
- Emphasizing a certain part or product: Your subject or product has a certain feature you would like to highlight. For example, your subject’s tattoo or eyes.
- Dramatic images in black and white
- To encapsulate intense action moments.
Despite these guidelines, I recommend you try various scenes with different key lighting.
Be creative and stay curious folks, you never know what would look weird at first glance but in actuality work well.
To explore the subject of high key vs. low key lighting even further, check out this in-depth guide by Aputure:
How is High Key Lighting Done?
In general, to shoot proper high-key photography, you should grasp the three-point lighting and some handy tips when photographing.
If you don’t know what three-point lighting is, check out this visual representation:
This is the secret recipe for creating a high-key image or even videos in the light and the shadows. If possible, I recommend using a large light source and soft shadows.
To achieve this effect, you can simply use large soft boxes or diffusers. This equipment is quite effective in adding lighting without including harsh shadows.
While the smaller your light source is, the harsher the light becomes.
For the scene of a high-key lighting setup itself would favor the lighter colored backgrounds. These types of backgrounds help in amplifying the ambient light in a scene.
To create fewer and softer shadows, I recommend not putting the light directly in front of your subject/object. From my experience, the such placing of the light will make anything appear flat.
Try placing the light around 30-45 degrees from the camera.
Combine the said angle with a well-lit scene, perfectly angled fill light, and voila! Your subject/object is now looking more dimensional than before!
To further explore the subject of how high-key lighting is made, check out this video by Brady Bessette:
High-Key Lighting Tips
After studying the basics of three-point lighting, here are some tips to help you get started on those first few shoots.
1. Spread Out the Light
The best-case scenario is to have your subject lit from 360 degrees.
By having lights hitting your subjects everywhere, it becomes much easier to reduce shadow and contrasts.
2. Use Your Shadows
While the style reduces shadows, completely eradicating your shadows would be detrimental.
Incorporate soft shadows to add enough depth and detail.
You may encounter situations where shadows are nowhere to be seen, like when shooting outside.
I cannot stress enough the importance of post-processing and editing. Despite some schools of photography that reject the idea.
High key lighting meaning is a method of bathing your subjects with light.
Use post-processing and editing to tone down lighting just enough to show details.
Today we have learned about the high key lighting meaning, its name, and some high key lighting examples. Let me recap them for you:
– High key lighting meaning is essentially overexposing your subject.
– The goal of high-key lighting is to provide an image that can be perceived as upbeat, playful, romantic, clean, and professional.
– Popular high-key lighting examples are portraits, weddings, and commercial photographs. Each uses them in a slightly different way, but with the look in mind.
- Weddings commonly use this style on the groom to make them appear more romantic, beautiful, and captivating.
- Companies use it to make themselves appear more professional and cleaner.
- And the list goes on folks.
– Low key lighting is the complete opposite. The style produces shots that are mysterious in nature and look more serious than others.
- Photographers often use this style to capture intense moments of actions or emotions from their subjects.
– High-key lighting can be done in any environment, preferably indoors or in a studio. But you can still do it outside you know! You can use nature to provide you light and diffuse it as well.
- Going outside for a photoshoot around 1-2 hours after sunrise or 2-3 hours before sunset can help provide you with great exposure.
- Clouds can also help as a “natural light diffuser” giving you a softer look for that outdoor portrait.
– Do not forget the 3 tips to get you started too, there is no shame in using post-processing apps.
That’s pretty much it! I highly recommend you start practicing these tips whenever you can, either indoors or outdoors (if possible).
Practicing will make you comfortable with the style, and you become more perceptive about what is right or wrong in a shot. Best of luck.
Jon has been a passionate photographer for 10+ years. Fun fact is that he has a collection of around 300-400 cameras that his family has collected over the years. Outside of photography, he has a Masters Degree in Engineering and has 13 years experience working in the industry across the globe.